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In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts.

Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis.

It was found that direct co‑culture with macrophages induced chemoresistance in the ATLL ATN‑1 cell line, but not in other cell lines, including TL-Mor, ED and ATL-2S.

It was also found that expression of the T cell Ig and mucin domain‑containing molecule‑3 (TIM‑3) was induced in ATN‑1 cells by their long‑term co‑culture with macrophages.

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Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work.

Considering the importance of ICAM-1 in facilitating immune recognition of infected cells, it is posited that reduction of ICAM-1 expression is a unique strategy for circumventing appropriate immune responses that are mediated by different accessory proteins.

features, search, payment options and informational pages on Taylor & Francis Online will be unavailable during this scheduled release.The relation between these markers and genetic polymorphism, however, remains to be elucidated.The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of a single-base polymorphism at codon 241 in exon 4 of ICAM-1 gene on serum s ICAM-1 concentration in a healthy population, taking into account other biological determinants of s ICAM-1 level.Nearly 60 years later, the search for a “cure” for the common cold virus is still ongoing.Correspondence: Dr S Visvikis, Unité INSERM U525, 30 rue Lionnois, 54 000 Nancy, France.Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), an aggressive type of malignant lymphoma, is highly resistant to chemotherapy.However, the detailed mechanisms of the chemoresistance of ATLL have never been elucidated.The main aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i NOS) as host factors, and proviral load as the viral parameter, in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) individuals and healthy carrier (HC(s)) groups.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from ATLL patients (n = 17) and HC subjects (as the control group, n = 17) were evaluated using real-time PCR to determine the levels of HTLV-1 proviral load and m RNA expression of expression was found in ATLL patients, when compared to the HCs subjects, while ATLL patients demonstrated a higher level of proviral load when compared to the control group.Serum s ICAM-1 levels and the G/R241 polymorphism of the ICAM-1 gene were measured in a large healthy population consisting of 413 children aged 6–21 years and 363 adults aged 38–55 years extracted from the Stanislas cohort.The R241 allele was significantly associated with lower s ICAM-1 levels and explained 3.4 and 1.9% of the s ICAM-1 variability in children and adults, respectively.

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